Having trouble pronouncing the sounds of words?
While pronunciation is important, sometimes it’s just as important to get the word stress correct . English words always have one part (syllable) that is stressed more strongly than others, this is called the primary stress. Correct primary stress helps the listener to understand your speech.
If you slightly mispronounce a word, but the primary stress is correct, you can often communcate it’s meaning. So, stress is important, especially for words you use often.
The primary stress can change the meaning of words with the same spelling. For example, ADDress means a place, but aDDRESS means to speak formally to a group. PROduce means food gown to be sold, but proDUCE means to make something.
But don’t worry, it’s easy to check a word’s primary stress in a dictionary. You will see a /ˈ / symbol before it in the phonemes. For example, if you look up the word pronunciation, its phonemes /prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃn/ tell us the primary stress in on /eɪ/. So, we pronounce the whole word as pronunciAtion with the stress on the ‘a.’
Luckily, there are patterns that can help us guess word stress without having to check a dictionary. Here are a few below.
Is it a noun?
Almost all two-syllable nouns have stress on the first syllable. For example, REcord, INcrease, REfund. Also, compound (two word) nouns have stress on the first word. For example, CELLphone, CAR park, LAPtop.
Is it a verb?
Most two-syllable verbs have stress on the second syllable. For example, preSENT, rePEAT, deCREASE. Two-word verbs have stress on the second word. For example, clean UP, print OUT, look UP.
Does it have a suffix?
Some suffixes also affect the stress. Here are a few:
- Words ending with the -ese and –ee have stress on that syllable. For example, JapanESE, employEE.
- Words ending with -tion, -ic or -logy have stress on the syllable before. For example, accommoDAtion, athLEtic, techNOology.
- Words ending with -ate, -ity or -ous have stress two syllables before. For example, GRAduate, elecTRIcity, SErious.
Did you know some words also have a secondary stress? It can sometimes be found in longer words. This syllable is also stressed, but slightly less than the primary one. It’s marked with a /ˌ / symbol. For example, with pronunciation above, we can see it’s on the /nʌn/ (nun) syllable.